In 2017-2021, 21 laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 29 Decrees, 149 resolutions of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and 185 government resolutions on the development of agriculture and reforms in the industry were adopted. In 2019, the "Strategy for the Development of Agriculture of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2020-2030" was adopted.
The Laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On Seed Production", "On Amendments and Additions to Certain Legislative Acts of the Republic of Uzbekistan in Order to Improve the Efficiency of Use of Agricultural Land and Forest Fund", "On Dekhkan Farming", "On Subsidiary Farming" and others have been adopted.
It is allowed to provide agricultural land for secondary lease to legal entities and individuals, and the right to freely sell agricultural products grown in subsidiary farms is guaranteed. Special resolutions of the Decree of the Republic of Uzbekistan (No. PP-4633 and No. PP-4634 of March 6, 2020) abolished the practice of producing raw cotton, cereals on the basis of the state order and the establishment by the state of purchase prices for them.
Reforms have been carried out to improve public administration in the field of agriculture. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Uzbekistan is entrusted with the tasks of monitoring agricultural lands and crops, placing crops, exercising state supervision over the protection of agricultural land, accelerating the development of the food industry of the republic and fully providing the population with high-quality food products.
Expansion of agricultural land
A number of documents and procedures for the development and reuse of agricultural land were developed. The "Concept for the effective use of land and water resources in agriculture" was confirmed, which provides for the phased re-introduction into use of 1.1 million hectares of land previously eliminated from agricultural circulation in 2020-2030. It is also planned to develop rainfed and pasture lands with groundwater reserves through the widespread introduction of resource-saving technologies.
As a result of the measures taken in 2019-2021, a total of 363.4 thousand hectares of agricultural land were re-commissioned. In 2018-2020, work was carried out to assess the quality of the soil (ball-botitet) on a total of 2.4 million hectares of land. Moreover, work is underway to assess the quality of the soil of 690.3 thousand hectares of land.
Diversification of agricultural production
In 2016-2020, a total of 330.5 thousand hectares of low-profitable cotton and grain fields were reduced due to the establishment of high-yield products for the domestic market and exports on these lands. In 2016-2020, the volume of grown vegetables increased by 103%, potatoes - by 114%, melons - by 110%, legumes - by 3.6 times, the harvest of oilseeds - by 240%, fodder crops by 191%, fruits by 107.4%, grapes by 106%.
In 2017-2020, farms and agricultural enterprises created modern greenhouses with a total of 3.2 hectares of area, and the area of greenhouses reached 4.8 thousand hectares (in particular, 680 hectares of hydroponics). In 2021, modern greenhousesshould be built on an area of 2.3 thousand hectares (2.5 times more compared to 2020). Moreover, 290 modern greenhouses on 590 hectares of land have been launched.
In 2016-2020, intensive gardens of 69.6 thousand hectares and a vineyard and 57 thousand hectares were built on developed and rainfed lands reduced from cotton and grain. In the spring season of 2021, 63.8 thousand hectares of fruit orchards (11 times more than in 2016) and 37.5 thousand hectares of vineyards were created. (7 times more).
In 2017-2020, water-saving technologies were introduced on 291.2 thousand hectares of agricultural land, including drip irrigation systems for 120.5 thousand hectares, sprinkler irrigation for 3.5 thousand hectares, discrete irrigation for 4.2 thousand hectares and flexible pipes on 146.8 thousand hectares.
In January-September 2021, water-saving technologies were introduced on an area of 326 thousand hectares.
In total, in 2021, water-saving systems should be introduced on 430 thousand hectares of land, which is 5 times more than in 2020. Of these, 210 thousand hectares will fall on drip irrigation systems, 18.6 thousand hectares for sprinkling, 623 hectares for discrete irrigation.
Specialization of regions
The system of gradual specialization of districts on cultivation of the most productive for their conditions types of agricultural products. In 2019, 55 districts were fully specialized in growing fruits and vegetables. Until 2022, a total of 422.3 thousand hectares of land in the regions will be specialized. In particular, 133.9 for horticulture, 113 thousand hectares for viticulture, 49.9 thousand hectares for vegetable growing, 24.5 thousand hectares for melons, 15.8 thousand hectares for potato growing, 56.1 thousand hectares for legumes and medicinal plants, 6.1 thousand hectares for greenhouses and 22.9 thousand hectares for growing fodder and oilseeds.
Pilot and commercial projects have been implemented in cooperation with foreign partners on the digitalization of the agricultural sector in the regions. In particular, data on crops were posted on a digital platform in terms of cotton and grain fields of Kashkadarya and Andijan regions in 2020, Syrdarya and Bukhara regions in 2021.
A project was launched on online monitoring of more than 225.5 hectares of areas of the Bukhara region, as well as an information system for registering and monitoring the provision of mechanization services in real time, covering more than 3500 units of agricultural machinery with installed GPS equipment.
An information system for monitoring the use of water resources at irrigation facilities has been developed. In addition, more than 200 Smart Water installations have been introduced and the system is being monitored.
The strategy for the development of agricultural technologies was approved and the state institution "Center for Digitalization of the Agro-Industrial Complex" under the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Union was created.
In 2019-2020, the activities of 51 new agrologistic centers with a total capacity of 738 thousand tons were launched. In 2021, another 20 such centers will begin their activities, the total capacity of which will reach more than 1 million tons per year. In 2020, the capacity of refrigerated warehouses and storage warehouses of agrologistics centers amounted to 1.26 million tons, which is 2.6 times more than in 2017.
Work is underway to create 8 more modern large agrologistic complexes, with a capacity of 1.6 million tons, with the involvement of ADB, WB and the French company Rungis Semmaris.
Science and education
In order to develop science and innovation, the Research Institute of Plant Genetic Resources was established, as well as the activities of the National Genbank for Genetic Resources of Agricultural Crops. As a result of scientific research in 2019-2020, 15 new varieties (3 times more) were created and included in the State Register, in particular, 6 new varieties of cotton, 9 varieties and hybrids of vegetables. For comparison: in 2016, only 5 new varieties of crops were created. In 2017-2018, a total of 128 patents were obtained.
This year, the National Center for Knowledge and Innovation in Agriculture and the first Center for Knowledge, Innovation, Consultation and Agricultural Services (ACIS) were established in the Tashkent region. In the future, such centers will be created in all regions of the Republic, where more than 100 types of agricultural services will be provided and international quality and certification standards will be introduced on the basis of the principle "from field to consumer".
Quotas for admission to higher educational institutions in the field of the agricultural sector increased by 2 times, the scientific potential increased by 17%. In cooperation with leading higher educational institutions of foreign countries, 9 joint training programs were introduced.
During 2020-2021, 39 internationally recognized Global G.A.P. standards were implemented, as well as 4 Organic standard, 226 international standards ISO 22000 (HACCP) and 257 other standards for 526 farms and enterprises grouped as a result of the cooperative approach.
Exports of fruit and vegetable products has been established to 24 new, highly solvent countries such as Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Cyprus, Great Britain, Luxembourg, Australia, Kuwait, Aman, etc. In particular, despite the conditions of the pandemic in 2020, 1.5 billion tons (187%) of agricultural products worth more than $ 1 billion were exported (2 times more than in 2016).